By Michael Anderson
Even though we frequently seek social and ancient files for clues to our earlier, organic records probably carry an important facts of our history. The qualities we inherit from our mom and dad and go directly to our offspring are encoded in our genes and DNA and display a lot approximately either our origins and our destiny. This quantity examines the interesting biology in the back of genetics and genetic problems. It additionally conscientiously considers the foundations of gene manipulation and genetic engineering whose capability to revolutionize drugs, undefined, and agriculture is changing into more and more obvious with each new discovery.
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Extra info for A Closer Look at Genes and Genetic Engineering (Introduction to Biology)
Plasmids are the most common vectors used in genetic engineering. These are circular DNA molecules found in some bacteria. They are extrachromosomal molecules, meaning that they replicate independently of the bacterial chromosome. The first step in the process involves mixing the donor organism’s DNA with a set of restriction enzymes that will isolate the gene of interest by cutting it from its 61 A Closer Look at Genes and Genetic Engineering chromosome. In a separate step, a plasmid is cut with the same restriction enzymes.
It is within the genome that the basic 42 The Nature of Chromosomes and Genes information for the renewal of these cells, and many other types of cells, is found. The human genome is not uniform. Except for identical twins, no two humans on Earth share exactly the same genomic sequence. Further, the human genome is not static. Subtle and sometimes not-so-subtle changes arise with startling frequency. Some changes are neutral or even beneficial; these are passed from parent to child and eventually become common in the population.
These enzymes are found only in bacteria, where they protect the host genome against invading foreign DNA, such as a virus. Each restriction enzyme recognizes a short, specific sequence of nucleotide bases in the DNA molecule. These regions, called recognition sequences, are randomly distributed throughout the DNA molecule. Different bacterial species make restriction enzymes that recognize different nucleotide sequences. By convention, restriction enzymes are named for the genus, species, and strain designations of the bacteria that produce them and for the order in which they were first identified.
A Closer Look at Genes and Genetic Engineering (Introduction to Biology) by Michael Anderson