By Nicholas A. Hopkins
The lexical info suggested during this Chuj-English dictionary have been accumulated in the course of my
dissertation box paintings in 1964-65. My first publicity to the Chuj language used to be in 1962, while I
went to Huehuetenango with Norman A. McQuown and Brent Berlin to assemble information on the
languages of the Cuchumatanes (Berlin et al. 1969). on the time i used to be a graduate pupil at the
University of Texas, hired as a learn assistant at the collage of Chicago's Chiapas
Study tasks, directed by way of McQuown (McQuown and Pitt-Rivers 1970). operating via the
Maryknoll monks who have been then the Catholic clergy within the indigenous parts of Huehuetenango
and in other places in Guatemala, we recorded fabric, frequently within the kind of 100-word Swadesh
lists (for glottochronology), from a number of languages. The pattern integrated audio system of the
Chuj number of San Mateo Ixtatán (including the guy who was once later to develop into my major
In the Spring of 1962, as box paintings for the venture wound down, I again to Austin to
finish drafting my Master's thesis, after which went directly to Chicago to start graduate experiences in
Anthropology on the collage of Chicago, with McQuown as my significant professor. I continued
to paintings on Chiapas venture fabrics in McQuown's files, and in 1963 he assigned me the
Chuj language because the subject of my upcoming doctoral dissertation. Over the subsequent educational yr I
transcribed and analyzed the Chuj fabrics we had gathered and ready initial analyses
of the phonology and morphology of the language.
At the top of the summer time of 1964, with aid from a countrywide safety schooling Act
Foreign Language Fellowship, I went to Huehuetenango to start box paintings on Chuj. by means of the end
of August I had shriveled an informant (Francisco Santizo Andrés) and rented a home in
Huehuetenango, and we started paintings in earnest. From then until eventually September of 1965 we worked
an eight-hour day, six days per week, with occasional breaks whilst Francisco might cross domestic and I
would visit San Cristóbal de Las Casas, the place Berlin and different anthropologists and linguists
were engaged on their very own projects.
We started via reviewing my initial analyses and correcting my blunders of
transcription, in addition to my phonemic research. while Francisco realized to transcribe
Chuj within the technical orthography that we used on the time (using ¢ for the alveolar affricate, c
with hachek for the alveopalatal affricate, x for the velar fricative, etc.). through the years I elicited
Terry Kaufman's Mayan Vocabulary Survey checklist (a kind of 1400-item questionnaire
covering easy vocabulary for Mesoamerican languages), and a Monosyllable Dictionary. The
latter, it sounds as if designed via Kaufman for the Chicago initiatives, took benefit of the CVC
shape of such a lot Mayan roots, and concerned producing the checklist of attainable CVC mixtures and
attempting to elicit vocabulary according to each one. One benefit of this method is that it elicits
vocabulary that will another way now not take place to both the informant or the investigator, including
onomatopoetic varieties in addition to hardly heard lexical iterms. We additionally started to checklist narratives.
Francisco may dictate a textual content to the tape recorder, operated by way of me, after which transcribe the tape
(see Hopkins 1980b). i might pass over the transcriptions and ask questions about the grammar
and lexicon. the entire lexical fabric accumulated by means of those innovations was once wear three x five slips and filed
in the lexical dossier that's the foundation for the current dictionary.
In February of 1965, the botanist Dennis E. Breedlove, who used to be operating in Chiapas with
Brent Berlin on Tzeltal ethnobotany (see Berlin, Breedlove and Raven 1974, Breedlove 1981),
came to Huehuetenango to gather vegetation within the Cuchumatanes, together with specially the Chujspeaking
region, the place there has been large cloud wooded area. We accrued for 2 days close to San
Juan Ixcoy and the Captzin rocks, after which went directly to San Mateo Ixtatán for 4 extra days.
Francisco and Dennis accrued the specimens and Dennis recorded the botanical information,
including the locality, altitude, and so on. and feedback at the crops. Francisco and that i recorded the Chuj
names of the crops and their ethnobotanical class (in phrases of the types 'anh, te',
ch'anh, and 'ixim). in line with my box notes we amassed 1328 specimens in that box session
(Br 8465-9793). those information went into my lexical slip records, and the result of this and other
collecting journeys have been later released (Breedlove and Hopkins 1970-71). The botanical IDs from
that booklet are included during this dictionary.
In might of 1965 Francisco and that i conducted a two-week dialect survey of the world in
which San Mateo Ixtatán Chuj was once spoken, within the municipios of San Mateo Ixtatán and Nentón,
collecting fabric from 17 aldeas and the city heart, a complete of 27 questionnaires. a number of texts
were recorded in this box season, and as ordinary, the transcribed fabric used to be incorporated
into my lexical documents. on the finish of this dialect survey Francisco and that i accrued extra plant
specimens (H 0001-0038).
The number of plant names encouraged me to assemble animal names in addition, and to take
notes on their local category. Absent box paintings at the venture, we consulted reference
books, together with Ibarra's Mamíferos de Guatemala, Alvarez del Toro's Reptiles de Chiapas, and
Peterson's box courses to the birds. a few of the names were accrued during the Mayan
Vocabulary Survey elicitation or the Monosyllable Dictionary. within the technique of recording this
information, i started to discover the Chuj procedure of gender markers that partitioned the animals
into coherent periods, and Francisco went throughout the lexical documents and further the gender markers
to the slips. the result of this research have been released within the ill-fated magazine of Mayan
Linguistics (Hopkins 1980a).
In Guatemala urban I had got the topographical maps for the area of
Huehuetenango (Dirección normal de Cartografía, 1963; see box Notes, 6-12 September,
1964) and Francisco and that i pored over the maps position by way of position as I recorded the Chuj names,
most of that have been garbled within the Spanish types (the locative yich, 'base of', for example, was
almost necessarily transcribed Ix-). i finally dropped at the Instituto Nacional de Geografía
and to the Instituto Indigenista Nacional a corrected record, for what that used to be worthy. My research of
the formation of Chuj position names used to be later publshed (Hopkins 1972), and all of the position names
were further to my lexical documents. The Spanish position names mentioned listed below are the reliable names, as
registered within the Diccionario geográfico de Guatemala (Dirección common de Cartografía 1961-
A graduate scholar in Geology from LSU was once dwelling in Huehuetenango in 1964-65, and
he pointed out many of the rocks and minerals we had names for. For the result of his learn and
related paintings within the Cuchumatanes via him and his colleagues, see Blount 1967 and Anderson et
In August of 1965, Dennis Breedlove and Brent Berlin got here to Guatemala to collect
plants and talk about extra tasks. With Francisco's aid, they amassed close to Antigua and then
again within the Chuj zone, all jointly one other 292 specimens (Br 11397-11689). Brent and that i met
with Chris Day, one other Chicago graduate pupil (in the sector engaged on Jacaltec whereas I was
working on Chuj, see Day 1973), a few comparative learn of numeral classifiers within the three
languages, Tzeltal, Jacaltec and Chuj. Over the following few years we collaborated in a preliminary
project, yet by no means introduced it to fruition. The plan was once for Chris to bring together and evaluate the
vocabularies, Brent to jot down up the semantics (as in his 1964 and 1968 monographs), and for me
to study the grammars. simply the grammatical research reached booklet (Hopkins 1970).
However, the entire info I had generated concerning the Chuj numeral classifiers went into my
I lower back to Chicago in September, 1965, to complete my graduate paintings and my doctoral
dissertation (Hopkins 1967). I then took a task educating Anthropology on the collage of Texas
in Austin, and endured to technique my Chuj fabrics. I married Kathryn Josserand in 1970 and
spent a yr in Milwaukee, the place she were educating, after which again to Texas. In 1973 we
left Texas for Mexico urban, on the invitation of Angel Palerm to set up the Programa de
Lingüística on the new Centro de Investigaciones Superiores del INAH that he directed (now
CIESAS, the Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social). paintings on
Chuj used to be deserted in desire of box education and learn on languages in the direction of Mexico City,
especially Otomanguean languages. many years later, simply because we had started to keep on with the
developments in Maya epigraphy, we started to paintings on Mayan languages back, yet box work
was on Chol, now not Chuj.
I didn't go back to paintings on Chuj until eventually 2005-6, while I bought a countrywide Endowment for
the Humanities Documenting Endangered Languages Fellowship. This fellowship allowed me to
prepare my Chuj fabrics for digitization and archiving on the Archive of the Indigenous
Languages of Latin the USA (AILLA, www.ailla.utexas.org). Now, in 2012, all my recorded
materials on Chuj are archived. besides my transcribed box Notes and box photographs, a
revised model of my dissertation, rewritten in sleek functional orthography, will entire this
The assortment contains all of the recorded and transcribed Chuj texts, a few forty samples of
Chuj speech from 8 Chuj settlements, a few of which not exist. greater than twenty of
the settlements mentioned the following as position names have been deserted or destroyed within the genocide of the
so-called civil battle (Manz 1988:83-89). it truly is my goal so as to add to the AILLA archive collection
much of my written fabric to boot, together with vast notes made whereas discussing grammar
and lexicon with Francisco Santizo Andrés. All this fabric is to be freely to be had to anyone
interested, and an digital model of the current Dictionary can be additional to the collection.
In the summer time of 2011, I dug out of a closet a wood chest that contained 4 drawers
of lexical slip documents, untouched due to the fact approximately 1970. Over the following few months I transcribed the
lexical entries into an digital textual content dossier, rewriting the orthography into the now respectable Chuj
script (Lenguas Mayas de Guatemala, 1988). i've got tried to ensure that those materials
include the entire information on plant and animal names, position names, numeral classifiers, etc., that I had
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Additional resources for A DICTIONARY OF THE CHUJ (MAYAN) LANGUAGE
Ichamil. 'ichikin, n (inh). Kin term: See 'inchikin, grandson. 'ichmil, n (winh). Kin term: husband (female speaker). In reference, winh wichmil, my husband. In address, wichmil, my husband. Reciprocal, wistzil, my wife. Probably < 'icham. 'ichp'en, n (lum). Place name: Ixquisis, San Mateo. = yich k'isis. Aldea whose residents speak 22 Santa Eulalia Kanjobal. 'ich te', n (te'). " A tree that grows in the montaña, tall, 2-3 feet thick, straight, limbless trunk. Leaves about 2" long, thick, ovaloid with pointed tips, green on top, white on bottom.
Ex: yechen, his wound; yechenal winh, his wounds, the wounds from which he suffers. 'ech', n ('anh). Plant name (a bromeliad). See also kakaw 'ech'. Br 8760. Greigia steyermarkii. 14 'ech'a', vtr. To pinch something, Spanish "pelliscar". To push the fingernail into something, or to pinch something with the thumb- and index finger-nails. Ex: tzin yech'a', He pinches me; swech'a', I pinch it. 'ech', num cl (1b, A24b). An act of pinching of something, or times pinching something, leaving a hole or mark.
Water 17 down a wall, or blood down an arm. = 'eltah ch'ulch'onok. Ex: tz'eltah ch'ulnajok, It's running down. 'eltah lujnaj -sim, vin-dir phrase. For one's snot to be running. Ex: tz'eltah lujnaj hin sim, My snot is running. 'eltah pulponok, vin-dir phrase. , a water source that pulses. Cf. 'el pulnajok. 'elxul, vin-dir. For maize to come out again. Said in the harvest: There is maize again this year. Ex: 'ix 'elxul 'ixim 'ixim, The maize came again. 'elk'al, n. Robbery or theft. 'elk'al 'ix, n phrase.
A DICTIONARY OF THE CHUJ (MAYAN) LANGUAGE by Nicholas A. Hopkins