By Richard J. Reid
Up to date and revised to stress long term views on present concerns dealing with the continent, the hot 2d variation of A heritage of contemporary Africa recounts the complete breadth of Africa's political, monetary, and social background over the last centuries.Adopts a long term method of present concerns, stressing the significance of nineteenth-century and deeper indigenous dynamics in explaining Africa's later twentieth-century challengesPlaces a better specialize in African enterprise, particularly throughout the colonial encounterIncludes extra in-depth insurance of non-Anglophone AfricaOffers improved assurance of the post-colonial period to take account of contemporary advancements, together with the clash in Darfur and the political unrest of 2011 in Egypt, Tunisia, and Libya
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Additional resources for A History of Modern Africa: 1800 to the Present, 2nd Edition (Blackwell Concise History of the Modern World)
At the end of the seventeenth century, a fleet from Oman drove the Portuguese from most of the coastal settlements, with the exception of the southerly Mozambique littoral, and from this point the Swahili coast was very loosely under the suzerainty of the Omani sultans. The latter began to assert their authority rather more vigorously toward the end of the eighteenth century, however, with a view to capitalizing on the Indian Ocean commerce which was once more burgeoning; and the base of Omani expansion was the island of Zanzibar.
States such as Bonny, Calabar, and – later in the nineteenth century – Opobo were compact communities scattered among the innumerable mouths of the Niger, structured around trading “houses” which became the basic units of social and commercial organization. Each had its own informal area of commercial and political influence, which was used to gain access to European merchants; slaves had been important earlier in the century, but palm oil soon took their place, and indeed the delta became synonymous with oil for the European (and especially British) trading companies which did business there.
Complex elite oral traditions developed around privileged status, underpinning the separateness of ruling classes and lineages, while privilege itself was maintained through elaborate systems of taxation and tribute. Immigrant pastoralists developed such systems in Rwanda and Burundi, where they became known as Tutsi, and in Ankole, where they were Hima; in these societies they were patrons to agriculturalist clients, the Bantu-speaking farmers known as Hutu in Rwanda and Burundi, and Iru in Ankole.
A History of Modern Africa: 1800 to the Present, 2nd Edition (Blackwell Concise History of the Modern World) by Richard J. Reid