By Harold F. Schiffman
This can be a reference grammar of the normal spoken number of Tamil, which differs noticeably from the literary language. This booklet, a miles accelerated model of the author's Grammar of Spoken Tamil (1979) is the 1st such grammar to comprise examples either in Tamil script and in transliteration, and is designed to be obtainable to scholars learning the trendy spoken language in any respect degrees in addition to to linguists and different experts. The e-book has benefited from broad native-speaker enter and the author's personal lengthy adventure of training Tamil to English-speakers.
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Extra info for A Reference Grammar of Spoken Tamil (Reference Grammars)
16 Monosyllabic words with short vowels ending in laterals (there are none that end in rhotics) such as uw 'tooth', a>en 'toddy', Qa^rro) 'say', etc. are realized in ST with doubled laterals and an added epenthetic u vowel: pallu, kallu, sollu, etc. 6. Nasals LT has graphemes for a labial nasal ii, a dental nasal jfe, an alveolar nasal eir, a retroflex nasal flror, a palatal nasal (6T> and a velar nasal ra. 17 Otherwise, monosyllabic 15 For its pronunciation, see below. In this sense we take bits and pieces of different dialects as 'standard', since this is pedagogically sounder, even though there may be no speaker who actually replicates each and every pronunciation we prefer.
8. Oral Vowels The Tamil vowel system consisting of five cardinal vowels s\, @, £-, 6T, Q and their long counterparts ^ FT, ©m, £j, Q are represented in our transliteration as a, i, u, e, 0 and aa, ii, uu, ee, 00, respectively. The diphthong g) is usually simplified to e in ST; thus the accusative s\6uy-6D 'him' is avare in ST. This is actually phonetically [e], but we represent it as e for simplicity. In monosyllables, or in will pronounce these with palatal and velar articulations automatically.
Deletion of /, r, /before stops, internally: utkkaarndeen — • ukkaandeen etc. 8. General cluster reduction: utkaaru — • okkaaru; keetkireen — • keekkreen. 4. APPENDIX 23 9. Monophthongization of ai to e: in accusatives, noun endings, internally. Exception: in monosyllables, vai — • vayyi or in initial syllables of polysyllabic words. 10. Intervocalic v and k deletion. Complicated, but examples: paarkkavillai —r paakkalle ([paikkale]; poohaveendum —• poohanum ([poihanu]); poohireen —> pooreen; konduvaa —• kondaa, etc.
A Reference Grammar of Spoken Tamil (Reference Grammars) by Harold F. Schiffman