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Afonso feared that Dinis would name his illegitimate son, Afonso Sanches, heir to the throne, and openly rebelled against his father in 1321, seizing Coimbra. Pedro Afonso acted as mediator between Dinis and Afonso, and before long, Dinis pardoned Pedro for siding against him and reinstated him. In the 1344 chronicle, Pedro tends not to fault Afonso in the war between father and son, but places the blame on certain royal RODERICK AND LA CAVA IN MEDIEVAL HISTORY 31 advisers, in particular one Gomes Laurenço.

The fusion of the individual and personal with the national and universal arose from the need to make sense of the senseless for the Christian Spaniards who found themselves suddenly under Moorish thrall, and to reinforce the rightfulness and timeliness of Muslim expansion from the Arab point of view. It is in this fusion that later historians have noted strange parallels between mythical stories and historical events, such as the disappearance of Troy, and of the Roman and later, of the Visigothic kingdoms, which appear to prefigure the albeit extended disappearance over eight centuries of the Saracens.

The motif of the dishonor of Julian’s daughter appears for the first time in the eleventh-century Chronica Gothorum pseudo-Isidoriana [Pseudo-Isidorian Chronicle of the Goths], although the girl is violated in this version by King Witiza, Roderick’s predecessor. However, Pidal observes that the inclusion in this chronicle of the Arabic legend of the locked Toledan palace “tiende a presenter a Rodrigo cual hombre impío, violador de las más sagradas prohibiciones”19 [tends to present Roderick as an impious man, a violator of the most sacred prohibitions].

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Aircraft of the Luftwaffe Fighter Aces Vol. 2. A Chronicle in Photo


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